Vicious cycles

An unusual feature of the Encyclopedia is the identification of feedback loops and cycles. There has long been recognition of how one problem can impact on another. This Encyclopedia registers many relationships between problems in complex networks. Such relationships may form chains or pathways linking many problems. Hidden in the data as presented is also the existence of chains that loop back on themselves. 
Functionally and conceptually such vicious cycles may offer a better way to approach complex networks of problems. Any organization or policy maker focusing on a single problem needs to be aware of any vicious cycle of which that problem is a part. Unless the other problems in that cycle are addressed, the work towards a solution may be undermined, or worse, reinforcing other problems. Despite apparent success in responding to a particular problem in the short term, a narrow approach may not sustainably impact on its target problem if it is encouraging a vicious cycle. The problem may be regenerated by pressures building up in other parts of the cycle.
Currently detected loops can be found below. More details about vicious cycles can be found here.
There are 175 loops containing 3 nodes. The longest loop has 3 nodes.
  1. Segregation > Lack of assimilation > Plural society tensions
  2. Intimidation in educational institutions > Inadequate university education > Student revolt
  3. Discrimination against immigrants and aliens > Restrictions on immigration > Abusive traffic in immigrant workers
  4. Substance abuse > Cultivation of illegal drugs > Illicit drug trafficking
  5. Environmental pollution > Suppression of information concerning environmental safety > Lack of environmental accountability
  6. Rural unemployment > Marginal level of family income > Subsistence approach to capital resources
  7. Decreasing participation in collective religious worship > Impoverished churches > Lack of a religious centre
  8. Departure of business from small communities to urban locations > Ineffectiveness of tradition-bound small business methods > Limited market development
  9. Miscarriage of justice > Mistrust of system of justice > Collapse of judicial system
  10. Inadequate study environment > Competitiveness in education > Lack of play time for school children
  11. Illegal occupation of unoccupied property > Forced evictions > Increase in abandoned buildings
  12. Uncritical acceptance of dogmas and standards > Over-regulation > Discriminatory imposition of standards
  13. Policy vacuum > Irresponsible policy-making > Unrealistic policies
  14. Child-marriage > Trafficking in women > Forced marriage
  15. Operational ineffectiveness of international NGOs > Emasculation of role of non-governmental organizations > Inadequate funding of international NGOs
  16. Segregation in housing > Racial discrimination in education > Racial discrimination in politics
  17. Official secrecy > Covert intelligence agency operations > Unethical practices of government
  18. Inefficiency of international organizations > Loss of credibility in international institutions > Alienation of skilled personnel from international programmes
  19. Sexual unfulfilment > Pornography > Depersonalization of sex
  20. Impairment > Withdrawal > Stagnation
  21. Dishonour > Humiliation > Defamation of character
  22. Stress in human beings > Mitral valve diseases > Panic disorder
  23. Ignorance > Distrust > Doubt
  24. Rodents as pests > Rodenticides as pollutants > Rodent resistance to rodenticides
  25. Disordered behaviour in children > Family stress > Mental depression in children
  26. Deliberate ignorance during policy-making > Blame avoidance > Avoidance of decision-making
  27. Neglect of victims of crime > Serial victimization > Blaming victims
  28. Disputed educational programmes > Unperceived relevance of formal education in rural communities > Education breaks community ties
  29. Scientific ignorance > Anti-science > Unrigorous academic disciplines
  30. Earthquakes > Dam failures > Environmental degradation due to creation of dams
  31. Lack of skilled workers > Inappropriate employment incentives > Inadequate human resources development
  32. Paralysis of elders faced with the future > Unmeaningful social roles for the aged > Failure to profit from patterns of history
  33. Official secrecy > Covert intelligence agency operations > Espionage in domestic politics
  34. Elitism > Sexism > Social stratification
  35. Distorted media presentations > Insufficient cultural media > Elitist public information
  36. Static and unrelated social roles > Fragmented social responsibility > Self-image unrelated to the external world
  37. Personality cults > Megalomania > Messianic image of leadership
  38. Burden of servicing foreign public debt > Insufficient national creditworthiness > Limited national credit accessibility
  39. Inadequate funding of international programmes > Inefficiency of international organizations > Loss of credibility in international institutions
  40. Maldistribution of agricultural land > Insecure land tenure > Defective land use planning
  41. Lack of indigenous environmental rights > Unmeaningful relationships to place > Disparagement of indigenous cultures
  42. Substance abuse > Illicit trade in prescribed drugs > Overprescription of drugs
  43. Police indifference to community > Mistrust of police > Police demoralization
  44. Hoarded monetary gold > Uncertain status of monetary gold > Lack of confidence in the international monetary system
  45. Foreign exchange reserve shortages > Export credit competition > Decline in export credits
  46. Dependence on the media > Media illiteracy > Manipulation of the individual by mass media
  47. Unethical practices in natural resource management > Inequitable access to natural resources > Unbridled competition for scarce resources
  48. Deconstruction > Over-reliance on convenient beliefs > Politicization of scholarship
  49. Academic self-promotion > Faulty academic peer review > Plagiarism
  50. Juvenile alcoholism > Violent death of young people > Childhood trauma
  51. Deliberate ignorance during policy-making > Blame avoidance > Avoidance of negative feedback
  52. Inadequate evidence to convict known offenders > Inadequate law enforcement > Neglect of victims of crime
  53. Commercialization of nature > Undervaluation of community wealth > Proprietary possession of common resources
  54. Water insecurity > Conflicting claims to shared inland water resources > Inadequate water system infrastructure
  55. Incompetent household management > Chaotic households > Lack of sharing of community skills
  56. Unsatisfactory client/consultant relationship > Frozen contracts > Exploitative use of consultants
  57. Academic self-promotion > Commercialization of research > Plagiarism
  58. Disharmony of Wood in the body > Disharmony of Earth in the body > Disharmony of Fire in the body
  59. Military demoralization > Drunkenness of military personnel and troops > Inadequate military capability
  60. Inadequate drug control > Illicit drug trafficking > Corruption of customs and excise officials
  61. Chronic pelvic pain > Unnecessary gynaecological surgery > Adhesion related disorders
  62. Discrepancies in human life evaluation > Unwanted female babies > Inequality of life expectancy by gender
  63. Secularization > Trivialization of religious belief > Loss of faith in religion
  64. Unbridled competition among intergovernmental organizations for scarce resources > Inefficient location of facilities of international organizations > Inadequate coordination of the intergovernmental system of organizations
  65. Political apathy > Undemocratic political organization > Political injustice
  66. Departure of business from small communities to urban locations > Ineffectiveness of tradition-bound small business methods > Discouraging conditions for small business
  67. Medication side effects > Restrictive practices in trade in pharmaceutical products > Confusion among drugs with similar names
  68. Uncontrolled immigration > Restrictions on freedom of movement among countries > Illegal movement across frontiers
  69. Lack of religious discipline > Spiritual disobedience > Loss of spiritual guidance
  70. Unstructured local government in small communities > Insufficient means for community initiative > Unimplemented decisions
  71. Gland disorders > Overuse of hormone replacement therapy > Hormone pollution
  72. Female prostitution > Concubinage > Trafficking in women
  73. Prohibitive labour costs > Evasion of social costs by companies > Unethical practices by employees
  74. Bureaucratic inaction > Suspicion of bureaucracy > Inadequate skills in dealing with bureaucracies
  75. Prohibitive cost of water > Inadequate water supply in rural communities > Overexploitation of underground water resources
  76. Ideological conflict > Political schism > Political fragmentation
  77. Culture shock > Inter-cultural misunderstanding > Communication breakdown
  78. Radioactive contamination > Radiation damage to materials > Nuclear reactor accidents
  79. Inappropriate cash crop policy > Instability of the commodities trade > Burden of servicing foreign public debt
  80. Dependence on sophisticated technology for development > Prohibitive cost of building maintenance > Deteriorated building conditions
  81. Inhibited scientific investigation > Irrelevant scientific activity > Anti-science
  82. Gastric ulcers > Haemorrhage > Nutritional anaemias
  83. Foetal infection > Complications of childbirth > Anoxemia
  84. Insecticides as pollutants > Insect resistance to insecticides > Insect pests
  85. Parochial leadership posture > Lack of leadership initiative > Unconvincing alternatives to existing societies
  86. Retarded socialization > Immorality > Unethical personal relationships
  87. Neglect of the aged > Inadequate welfare services for the aged > Dependency of the elderly
  88. Impairment > Uncertainty > Unbelief
  89. Irreligiousness > Trivialization of religious belief > Loss of faith in religion
  90. Disorganized liaison with formal support > Unsystematic use of powerful relationships by rural communities > Hostilities between central and local governments
  91. Proliferation of nuclear weapons and technology > Vulnerable nuclear weapons arsenals > Illegal exports of nuclear materials
  92. Cultural suicide > Ethnocide > Denial of right to cultural identity
  93. Historical misrepresentation > Failure to profit from patterns of history > Commemoration of dishonourable historical events
  94. Unethical practices relating to development > Lack of participation in development > Inappropriate development policy
  95. Planned obsolescence > Prohibitive cost of equipment maintenance > Inadequate equipment maintenance
  96. Obesity > Abnormal blood fats > Diseases of metabolism
  97. Uncontrolled immigration > Delays in processing immigration requests > Refusal to issue travel documents, passports, visas
  98. Secrecy in scientific research > Anti-science > Unjustly persecuted scientists
  99. Mental depression > Insomnia > Use of medical drugs for non medical purposes
  100. Disharmony of Water in the body > Disharmony of Metal in the body > Disharmony of Earth in the body
  101. Segregation > Prejudice > Discrimination
  102. Scientific misconduct > Dogmatic scientific orthodoxy > Procrastination of science in the face of the unexplained
  103. Prohibitive cost of coastal protection against sea damage > Incomplete storm protection > Uncontrolled waterfront damage
  104. Fragmentation of academic disciplines > Jurisdictional conflict among academic disciplines > Ineffective educational policy decisions
  105. Social inequality > Cultural fragmentation > Exploitation
  106. Unethical practices in the legal system > Secret laws > Conflict of laws
  107. Execution of unethical orders > Blaming victims > Depersonalization of responsibility
  108. Disharmony of Water in the body > Disharmony of Fire in the body > Disharmony of Wood in the body
  109. Fear of the loss of independence > Individualistic welfare responsibility > Unbridled individualism
  110. Collapse in the meaning of participating in society > Search for individualistic meaning > Unbridled individualism
  111. Tax evasion > Unreported tax obligations > Inequitable tax treaties
  112. Political immaturity > Political apathy > Political opportunism
  113. Fragmentation of evidence > Inadequate evidence to convict known offenders > Official fabrication of evidence
  114. Natural environment degradation > Undervaluation of natural capital > Unconstrained exploitation of natural resources
  115. Military demoralization > Drug abuse by military personnel > Inadequate military capability
  116. Lack of skilled manpower in rural areas > Excessive dependence of local communities on outside services > Restricted scope of local employment
  117. Demolition of homes by government authorities > Denial of right to sufficient shelter > Urban slums
  118. Excessive television viewing > Parochial escapist media entertainment > Deterioration of media standards
  119. Departure of business from small communities to urban locations > Ineffectiveness of tradition-bound small business methods > Discrimination against local community shopping facilities
  120. Underdevelopment of mining and quarrying industries > Environmental impacts from mining > Instability of mining and quarrying industry
  121. Disharmony of Water in the body > Disharmony of Metal in the body > Disharmony of Wood in the body
  122. Suppression of information concerning social problems > Governmental bias in statistics > Misuse of statistics
  123. Gender stereotyping of employment > Obsession with personal attractiveness > Gender inequality
  124. Market indicators' exclusion of human requirements > Production serving false consumption needs > Overemphasis on immediate superficial needs
  125. Demonstrations > Civil violence > Inhumane methods of riot control
  126. Elitism > Class consciousness > Social stratification
  127. Military demoralization > Drunkenness of military personnel and troops > Accidental military incidents
  128. Inadequacy of intergovernmental decision-making process > Inadequate global policy-making > Conflicting international priorities
  129. Sleep deprivation > Job fatigue > Sleep disorders
  130. Limited local respect for regional and global legislation > Lack of international cooperation > Deficiencies in international law
  131. Sales promotion dominates market research > Inappropriate institutionalized reward systems > Abusive sales techniques
  132. Shortage of firewood > Destructive camping practices > Clearance of vegetation
  133. Inferior status employment > Maladjustment to disciplines of employment > Lack of job satisfaction
  134. International differences in trading practices > Weakness in trade between different economic systems > Inadequate industrial trade in developing countries
  135. Unethical practices in natural resource management > Shortage of natural resources > Unbridled competition for scarce resources
  136. Oligopolies > Non-accountability of transnational enterprises > Excessive independence of transnational corporations
  137. Trafficking in children for adoption > Refusal of adoption > Childlessness
  138. Disharmony of Fire in the body > Disharmony of Metal in the body > Disharmony of Earth in the body
  139. Asphyxia > Anoxemia > Dyspnoea
  140. Conformism > Forced assimilation > Dictatorship of the majority
  141. Economic inefficiency > Economic inflation > Fluctuations in real value of money
  142. Unethical practices in politics > Inadequate management of government finances > Unethical commercial practices
  143. Decline in export credits > Excessive dependence on export credits > Export credit competition
  144. Lack of child welfare institutions > After-school unsupervised children > Limited awareness of child-care opportunities
  145. Political apathy > Undemocratic political organization > Political repression
  146. Religious apathy > Trivialization of religious belief > Agnosticism
  147. Organized crime > Obstruction of administration of justice by undue influence > Ineffective legislation against organized crime
  148. Draft evasion > Unfair social representation in military forces > Brutalization of military personnel
  149. Structural failure of citizen participation > Collapse in the meaning of participating in society > Indifference
  150. Insufficient medical supplies > Unauthorized pharmaceutical manufacture and distribution > Restrictive practices in trade in pharmaceutical products
  151. Irresponsible nationalism > Compulsory indoctrination > Narrowmindedness
  152. Non-resistance to evil > Depravity > Complicity with evil
  153. Kidney disorders > Hypertension > Diseases of the lymphatic system
  154. Fragmented planning of community life > Inadequate dissemination of local information > Fragmented community image
  155. Lack of human unity > World anarchy > Human inequality
  156. Inappropriate irrigation schemes > Lack of water conservation > Mismanagement of irrigation schemes
  157. Fear > Arrogance > Aggression
  158. Foreign control > Denial of right of self determination > Human dependence
  159. Bilateralism in aid > Reverse flow of financial aid > Restrictive conditions on loans through intergovernmental facilities
  160. Haphazard transmission of practical technology > Disintegration of technological capacity > Insufficient technological information
  161. Harmful tattooing > Unsightly skin blemishes > Dissatisfaction with personal image
  162. Unjustly persecuted scientists > Limitation of current scientific knowledge > Anti-science
  163. Reduced interior structure of families > Diffusion of family role expectations > Limitations of monogamy
  164. Unaccountability of international financial institutions > Inadequate environmental concerns of international financial institutions > Over-dependency on international financial institutions
  165. Inadequate models of socio-economic development > Rapidly changing cultures > Resistance to change
  166. Heart failure > Dyspnoea > Respiratory distress syndrome
  167. Economic inefficiency > Economic inflation > Instability of prices
  168. Crime > Personal physical insecurity > Inadequate firearm regulation
  169. Mis-oriented facilities > Topocide > Unmeaningful relationships to place
  170. Unethical practices in politics > Nepotism > Entrenched politicians
  171. Inconclusiveness of scientific and medical tests > Procrastination of science in the face of the unexplained > Scientific misconduct
  172. Disagreement among experts > Questionable facts > Endorsement of false government claims
  173. Inadequate education of indigenous peoples > Exploitation of indigenous populations in employment > Exploitation of child labour
  174. Prohibitive cost of maintenance > Unethical maintenance practices > Inadequate maintenance personnel
  175. Repressed memories > Recovered memories > False accusations